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Carrot Information

Carrots

Stat Summary

Plant Spacing: 1-3" (25-76 mm)
Row Spacing: 12-16" (304-406 mm)
Planting Depth: 1/4-1/2" (6-12 mm)
Plants Per Person: 15
Soil Temperature: 60-70°F (16-21°C)
Days to Emergence: 6-21
Recommended Soil PH: 5.5-7.0
Earliest Outdoor Planting: Before Last Frost
Tick Can direct seed outdoors

Planting Information

The key to good carrot production is soil preparation. Straight, uniform root development occurs when carrots are planted in deep, fertile, well drained, loamy soils with a pH of 5.5 to 7.0. Root quality is best when soil temperatures are 60 to 70 F. Add composted organic matter to dry soil; do not use fresh manure and avoid excess nitrogen fertilizers which can cause splits and rough hairy roots.

Direct seed carrots from early spring through summer by planting seeds thinly, about 3 to 4 seeds per inch and about 1/4 to 1/2 inch deep; allow 12 to 16 inches between rows. Cover the seeds with vermiculite or sifted compost to prevent crusting and help retain even moisture. Make additional plantings every three weeks through midsummer for continuous supply and fall harvest.

Growing Information

Keep plants well weeded to reduce competition for nutrients in the soil. When carrots are emerging, sprinkle the row often with a fine gentle mist of water to prevent soil crusting. Mulch to keep soil cool, conserve moisture and to keep exposed shoulders from turning green and bitter.

Harvesting and Storing Information

Carrots are best harvested any time their color is bright; this is when their flavor and texture are optimum. Remove ripe carrots carefully to avoid doing damage to other carrot roots nearby. Carrots will remain fresh in the soil for several months. For extended storage, wash carefully to avoid injury or store unwashed and topped at 32 to 34 degrees F with high humidity.

Insect and Disease Information

Carrot fly maggots can be controlled by covering the rows with an insect barrier fabric at planting. Practice a 3-year crop rotation to help avoid various carrot blights. Carrot weevil problems can be minimized by cleaning up garden debris in autumn.

Yield Information

Carrots are normally planted several times throughout the year and each harvesting should be the number given.

Chinese Cabbage Information

Chinese-cabbage

Stat Summary

Plant Spacing: 12" (304 mm)
Row Spacing: 12-16" (304-406 mm)
Planting Depth: 1/2" (12 mm)
Plants Per Person: 2
Soil Temperature: 75-85°F (24-29°C)
Days to Emergence: 10-14
Recommended Soil PH: 6.5-7.0
Seed Indoors: 6 weeks before transplanting
Earliest Outdoor Planting: Before Last Frost
Tick Can direct seed outdoors
Tick Can seed indoors

Planting Information

Chinese cabbage is a cool weather plant that grows best as a fall crop; a good succession planting for peas or leaf lettuces. With care, Chinese cabbage can be grown in spring. This vegetable grows best in deep, well drained soil mixed with plenty of compost and a soil pH of 6.5 to 7.0. Sow seeds 1/2 inch deep outdoors about 12 inches apart. Chinese cabbage does not transplant well. To start indoors, sow seeds in individual pots 6 weeks before the frost-free date; thin to 1 seedling per pot and transplant into the garden 2 weeks before the last frost. Fall crops should be seeded about 3 months before the first expected frost.

Growing Information

Chinese cabbage needs regular watering and fertilizing to promote rapid growth. One month after planting, spread small amounts of a complete fertilizer around the garden bed and water in immediately. When cabbages heads start to appear, give them an extra growing boost by applying a light dressing of urea. Mulch plants heavily to keep the soil evenly moist. If windy, it needs shelter.

Harvesting and Storing Information

Harvest cabbage in dry weather before the seed stalks appear; heads should feel solid. Cut the heads just above the soil. Use immediately after harvested. Freeze Chinese cabbage for up to 6 months; wash, shred finely and blanch for 1 1/2 minutes. Chill in iced water for 2 minutes, drain and place in plastic bags to freeze.

Insect and Disease Information

Diseases like bacterial rot can be discouraged with good mulching, drip irrigation instead of overhead watering.

Yield Information

No yield information for Chinese Cabbage.

Chive Information

Chives

Stat Summary

Plant Spacing: 6-8" (152-203 mm)
Row Spacing: 12-16" (304-406 mm)
Planting Depth: 1/4" (6 mm)
Plants Per Person: 4
Soil Temperature: 60-75°F (16-24°C)
Days to Emergence: 7-21
Recommended Soil PH: 6.2-6.8
Earliest Outdoor Planting: Before Last Frost
Tick Can direct seed outdoors
Tick Can seed indoors

Planting Information

Chives are not fussy about their location, however, they grow best in full sun and moderately rich slightly acid soil (pH 6.2 to 6.8) that drains well. Growing chives from seed is a possible but slow process; you probably won't get any usable chives until year 2. Most gardeners prefer to purchase a clump of bulbs; set clumps of 4 to 6 bulbs each about 8 inches apart.

Growing Information

Snip off flowers to prevent unwanted reseeding; in cooler climates they can be invasive. Divide and replant clumps in fresh soil every three to five years.

Harvesting and Storing Information

Chives can be harvested as soon as tops grow to 6 inches. Use a sharp knife or scissors and cut leaves about 2 inches above the ground.

Insect and Disease Information

Chives are rarely bothered by insects or diseases.

Yield Information

No yield information for Chive.

Cucumber Information

Cucumber

Stat Summary

Plant Spacing: 8-15" (203-381 mm)
Row Spacing: 36-48" (914-1219 mm)
Planting Depth: 1/2-1" (12-25 mm)
Plants Per Person: 2
Soil Temperature: 65-90°F (18-32°C)
Days to Emergence: 4-14
Recommended Soil PH: 5.8-6.7
Seed Indoors: 6 weeks before transplanting
Earliest Outdoor Planting: After Last Frost
Tick Can direct seed outdoors
Tick Can seed indoors

Planting Information

Cucumbers are a warm season crop; they prefer a light fertile soil at least 65 degrees F and a pH of 5.8 to 6.7. Direct plant in groups of 4 to 6 seeds in raised beds or hills; this helps improve drainage. Sow seeds 1/2 to 1 inch deep with 3 to 4 feet between each group in all directions.

For transplanting, start seeds indoors in 3 1/2 inch across individual peat pots, this allows replanting the cucumbers without disturbing their roots. Fill pots with sterile seedling mix and plant seeds 1/2 inch deep. Transplant in garden when seedlings are about 3 weeks old. Set the whole peat pot in the soil, making sure the entire pot rim is below the soil line.

Thin to 8 to 15 inches apart in rows or 2 to 3 plants per group. Snip off plants when thinning to avoid disturbing the roots of nearby plants.

Growing Information

Mulch around plants to help consistent moisture. Cucumbers are heavy feeders and require nitrogen fertilizer, and/or additions of high-N organic matter sources; pale, yellowish leaves indicate nitrogen deficiency and leaf bronzing is a sign of potassium deficiency.

Harvesting and Storing Information

Harvest regularly and remove any old fruit to encourage continuous production. Best if eaten fresh, but can be stored for up to 3 weeks at 40 to 45 degrees F and 95% humidity.

Insect and Disease Information

When young seedlings, control striped and spotted cucumber beetles by covering with floating row cover. When plants mature, use applications of Rotenone-Pyrethrin. Removal of old plants will help reduce the likelihood of cucumber diseases.

Yield Information

You may want to grow more cucumber if you are planning on doing a lot of pickling.

Dill Information

Dill

Stat Summary

Plant Spacing: 12-18" (304-457 mm)
Row Spacing: 18-24" (457-609 mm)
Planting Depth: 1/4" (6 mm)
Plants Per Person: 3
Soil Temperature: 60-70°F (16-21°C)
Days to Emergence: 10-14
Recommended Soil PH:
Earliest Outdoor Planting: Around Last Frost
Tick Can direct seed outdoors
Tick Can seed indoors

Planting Information

Prefers well drained, light, even sandy soil that is not overly rich. Dill does best in full sun and in moderate temperatures. Sow dill directly into garden as soon as the ground can be worked in spring. Sow seeds 1/4 inch deep, 2 inches apart in rows 18 to 24 inches apart; cover very lightly with soil or compost.

When seedlings are about 2 inches tall, thin to 12 to 18 inches. Dill does not transplant well; if you start seeds indoors, plant in individual pots so you can avoid disturbing the soil around the root when transplanted.

Growing Information

If you live in a windy or stormy area, stake your plants to prevent damage.

Harvesting and Storing Information

Pick dill sparingly, no more than 1/5 of the plant's foliage so the plant is not weakened. The leaves last just 1 or 2 days in the refrigerator, so only harvest what you plan to use. Whole leaves can be frozen for longer storage

Insect and Disease Information

Dill rarely has pest or disease problems.

Yield Information

No yield information for Dill.

Eggplant Information

Eggplant

Stat Summary

Plant Spacing: 12-18" (304-457 mm)
Row Spacing: 24-36" (609-914 mm)
Planting Depth: 1/4" (6 mm)
Plants Per Person: 2
Soil Temperature: 75-80°F (24-27°C)
Days to Emergence: 5-15
Recommended Soil PH: 6.0-6.8
Seed Indoors: 9 weeks before transplanting
Earliest Outdoor Planting: After Last Frost
Tick Can seed indoors

Planting Information

Due to cool weather intolerance, it is best to start plants indoors if your area has a shorter growing season. Sow indoors in a sterile seedling mix 6 to 8 weeks prior to the last frost. Make a 1/4 inch furrow in a nursery tray and sow seeds fairly thick; cover and keep soil moist but not too wet.

When plants sprout their 2nd set of leaves, move each eggplant into its own 3 inch pot. About 2 weeks before transplanting harden off the young plants by exposing them to lower temperatures and less water. Transplant eggplants into a sunny location in the garden by spacing them 12 to 18 inches apart in rows 2 to 3 feet apart in sandy loam soil with a pH of 6.0 to 6.8.

Growing Information

Mulch to keep soil lightly moist and control weeds. Stake plants to keep them from falling over when they become heavy with fruit. Do not allow the soil to dry out. Feed new seedlings every other watering cycle with Fish Emulsion or liquid seaweed. After they have grown 2 true leaves use a fertilizer high in phosphorus, repeat every two weeks until transplant time.

Harvesting and Storing Information

Harvest eggplants after they develop a shiny colored skin; fruit should NOT spring back when your thumb is pushed against its side. Seeds in an over-ripe eggplant turn brown. Cut the stem with pruning shears and leave some stem on the fruit. Eggplant is best if eaten right after harvesting; they deteriorate rapidly after picked. However, fruit can be held 7 to 10 days at 45 to 55 degrees F and 90 to 95% humidity.

Insect and Disease Information

Beetles can be controlled with the use of row covers or insecticides. To help reduce disease, do not plant eggplants or other tomato-family crops in the same location more than once every three or four years. Practice crop rotation with grass cover crops to reduce incidence of yellowing Verticillium Wilt.

Yield Information

No yield information for Eggplant.

Lettuce Information

Lettuce

Stat Summary

Plant Spacing: 8-10" (203-254 mm)
Row Spacing: 16-22" (406-558 mm)
Planting Depth: 1/8" (3 mm)
Plants Per Person: 4
Soil Temperature: 40-75°F (4-24°C)
Days to Emergence: 2-15
Recommended Soil PH: 6.0-7.0
Seed Indoors: 5 weeks before transplanting
Earliest Outdoor Planting: Before Last Frost
Tick Can direct seed outdoors
Tick Can seed indoors

Planting Information

There are many varieties of lettuce which can be divided into two main categories: leaf lettuce and head lettuce. Most lettuces are hardy cool-season crops that can be planted in a sunny location (partial shade in warmer climates) as soon as the soil can be worked. Optimum growth occurs with well drained, fertile, high organic matter soils with a pH of 6.0 to 7.0.

Direct sow seeds 1/8 inch deep and 1 inch apart in rows 16 to 22 inches apart. As soon as 3 to 4 leaves have formed, thin leaf lettuce to 8 to 10 inches apart and head lettuce to 12 inches apart. For transplants sow 3 to 4 seeds per inch in sterile seedling mix on open flats or plug trays; barely cover seeds with soil or vermiculite. After plants are 4 to 6 weeks old, harden off for 2 to 3 days prior to transplanting into garden soil.

Growing Information

Lettuce has a shallow root system. Keep soil moist, but not soaked, to keep plants growing continuously. Use an organic mulch around plants to help moderate soil temperature, retain moisture and suppress weeds. Provide adequate calcium and avoid excess nitrogen and phosphorus to prevent tip-burn.

Harvesting and Storing Information

Leaf lettuce can be harvested as soon as the plant is large enough to use. Head lettuce takes longer to mature; harvest before the plants begin to elongate and loose their flavor. Pull up entire plant, using a sharp knife to remove the roots. It is best to harvest lettuce in the morning, when the leaves are cool and full of moisture.

Leaf lettuces are fragile and should be carefully rinsed in cool to warm tap water; rinse head lettuces in ice cold water, drip dry and store in refrigerator. Lettuce is best stored at 32 degrees F and 98-100% humidity.

Insect and Disease Information

Aphids can be washed off with the hose. Downy mildew is one of the most serious diseases of lettuce; help mitigate by increasing row and plant spacing for better air flow.

Yield Information

You may want to grow more lettuce if you are planning on picking it when it is still baby lettuce.

Melon Information

Melons

Stat Summary

Plant Spacing: 24-48" (609-1219 mm)
Row Spacing: 60-72" (1524-1828 mm)
Planting Depth: 1/2" (12 mm)
Plants Per Person: 2
Soil Temperature: 70-85°F (21-29°C)
Days to Emergence: 3-10
Recommended Soil PH: 6.5-7.5
Seed Indoors: 4 weeks before transplanting
Earliest Outdoor Planting: After Last Frost
Tick Can direct seed outdoors
Tick Can seed indoors

Planting Information

Melons can be direct sown in warm regions, but will normally yield more if started indoors about 3 to 4 weeks prior to your last frost. For transplants, fill 3-4 inch individual pots with sterile seeding mix; plant 2 to 3 seeds 1/2 inch deep. After the seedlings are well established, thin the pots to the single best plant.

After plants develop 2 leaves, transfer to a cold frame if you have one. Melons prefer a warm, sunny, well-drained, soil, high in organic matter with pH 6.5 to 7.5. Transplant the melons into the garden just before the plants become root bound and the soil temperature has reached at least 60 degrees F. Space the transplants 2 to 4 feet apart in rows 5 to 6 feet apart.

Growing Information

Melons and watermelon require even moisture levels that are damp to the touch. Using green, silver or black mulch increases both the soil and air temperatures close to the plants; it helps control weeds around smaller plants. After plants begin to bear fruit, feed with a water soluble plant food every two weeks.

Harvesting and Storing Information

Cantaloupes easily slip from the vine when ripe. Honeydew are ripe when the stem end is slightly springy and the skin begins to turn a creamy yellow. Watermelons emit a hollow sound when thumping their side with your finger. Watermelons will not ripen any further once they are taken off the vine.

All melons are best eaten fresh, but may be stored for short periods of time at temperatures between: 32-35 degrees F with 95% relative humidity for muskmelons; and 40-45 degrees F with 85% humidity for honeydews and watermelons.

Insect and Disease Information

Bacterial wilt and powdery mildew are common problems but can be controlled with proper soil management with mulching, crop rotation, not wetting leaves during watering and adequate spacing of plants for airflow. Cucumber beetles can be controlled by making tents of fine netting or cheesecloth or use floating row cover over young plants; put in place at planting and remove when plants begin flowering. Aphids can be removed from plants with a hard stream of water; it is best to do this earlier in the day to allow for maximum drying time for the foliage.

Yield Information

No yield information for Melon.

Mint Information

Mint

Stat Summary

Plant Spacing: 10-14" (254-355 mm)
Row Spacing: 10-14" (254-355 mm)
Planting Depth: 1/4" (6 mm)
Plants Per Person: 2
Soil Temperature: 60-75°F (16-24°C)
Days to Emergence: 10-15
Recommended Soil PH:
Earliest Outdoor Planting: Before Last Frost
Tick Can direct seed outdoors
Tick Can seed indoors

Planting Information

Mints flourish in full or partial sun and in moderately rich, moist, slightly acidic soil but will tolerate almost any setting. Since they spread by creeping along the soil surface, be careful where you plant Mint - it will become invasive. You can plant them in pots to help control their spreading.

You can grow from either seed, stem-tip cuttings or purchased plants. Seed germination is unpredictable and erratic. Plant cuttings just below the surface of moist potting soil; roots grow easily.

Growing Information

Keep plants bushy by pinching off the stem ends in spring and prune back plants when the season ends. Top dress with compost in the fall.

Harvesting and Storing Information

You can pick mint throughout the season by cutting the top half of young stems rather than single leaves. Mint is most flavorful just before the plant flowers.

Insect and Disease Information

Mint is immune to most diseases and pests

Yield Information

No yield information for Mint.

Radish Information

Radish

Stat Summary

Plant Spacing: 1-3" (25-76 mm)
Row Spacing: 8-15" (203-381 mm)
Planting Depth: 1/2" (12 mm)
Plants Per Person: 7
Soil Temperature: 45-80°F (7-27°C)
Days to Emergence: 4-11
Recommended Soil PH: 5.8-6.8
Earliest Outdoor Planting: Before Last Frost
Tick Can direct seed outdoors

Planting Information

Prefers well-drained, loose soil, high in organic matter, free from stones, with pH 5.8 to 6.8 but can grow almost anywhere. Prepare soil by working compost into the top 2 to 3 inches. Sow seeds 1/2 inch deep about 1/2 inch apart in rows 8 to 15 inches apart. When seedlings emerge, thin to 2 inches apart in the row.

Growing Information

Radishes have a shallow root system so they require plenty of consistent moisture.

Harvesting and Storing Information

Harvest round radishes when the roots are the size of a quarter or less than 1 inch in diameter. Young radishes have the best flavor, so pull them promptly.

Insect and Disease Information

Flea beetles can be controlled with applications of Retenone-Pyrethrin.

Yield Information

Because radishes mature quickly, radishes make a good inter-crop along with slower growing vegetable plants. For continuous harvest, make additional plantings every week or 2 until temperatures average in the mid 60s; you can once again begin planting in the fall.

Rosemary Information

Rosemary

Stat Summary

Plant Spacing: 8-12" (203-304 mm)
Row Spacing: 12-24" (304-609 mm)
Planting Depth: 1/4" (6 mm)
Plants Per Person: 1
Soil Temperature: 60-80°F (16-27°C)
Days to Emergence: 14-28
Recommended Soil PH: 6.5-7.0
Earliest Outdoor Planting: Before Last Frost
Tick Can direct seed outdoors

Planting Information

Prefers an average or thin soil with a neutral pH of 6.5 to 7.0 that drains well. Make sure rosemary has good air circulation around it by using a plant spacing of 8 to 12 inches. Rosemary can be grown by seed in indoor pots, but germination is slow and often unreliable. The best route is to start with a purchased plant or cuttings.

Dip a 4 inch cutting in rooting hormone powder and put in a 4 inch pot filled with a damp mix of half vermiculite and half perlite. Roots should form in about 3 weeks.

Growing Information

Feed rosemary monthly in spring and early summer with a water soluble organic plant food. Pinch stem tips to encourage bushiness or remove branches to attain a desired shape.

Harvesting and Storing Information

Clip leaves or stem tips as needed in the kitchen. Store leftover fresh rosemary in plastic bags or closed containers in the refrigerator. For longer-term storage, try freezing branches of rosemary; remove the frozen leaves from the stem as needed. Rosemary can also be dried by hanging bunches in a warm, dark, dry place.

Insect and Disease Information

Rosemary is troubled by few insects and diseases.

Yield Information

No yield information for Rosemary.

Squash - Summer Information

Squash-summer

Stat Summary

Plant Spacing: 12-24" (304-609 mm)
Row Spacing: 36-60" (914-1524 mm)
Planting Depth: 1/2-1" (12-25 mm)
Plants Per Person: 1
Soil Temperature: 65-85°F (18-29°C)
Days to Emergence: 5-10
Recommended Soil PH: 5.8-6.8
Seed Indoors: 4 weeks before transplanting
Earliest Outdoor Planting: After Last Frost
Tick Can direct seed outdoors
Tick Can seed indoors

Planting Information

Prefers warm well-drained, fertile, loose soil, high in organic matter with pH between 5.8 and 6.8. Direct sow 4 to 5 seeds into a hill at 1/2 to 1 inch depth; space hills 2 to 4 feet apart. When plants are 3 inches tall, thin to 2 to 3 plants per hill by snipping off unwanted plants; this prevents disturbing the other roots.

To plant in rows, direct sow seeds 4 inches apart in rows 4 to 5 feet apart; thin to 1 plant every 1 to 2 feet. For transplanting, start inside with 3 or 4 seeds in each 3 inch pot about 3 to 4 weeks before time to place in garden; thin to 1 or 2 seedlings per pot.

Prior to transplanting, harden off squash by reducing both air temperature and water quantity. Plant squash in garden about 1 or 2 feet apart.

Growing Information

Plentiful and consistent moisture is needed from the time plants emerge until fruits begin to fill out. Mulch around plants to help retain moisture and reduce weeds.

Harvesting and Storing Information

Summer squash develops very rapidly after pollination; check plants every few days after they begin to flower. For best quality and taste, use a knife to cut fruits from the plants when small and tender. Most elongated varieties are picked when they are less than 2 inches in diameter and 6 to 8 inches long. Flatter types are harvested when they are 3 to 4 inches in diameter.

Insect and Disease Information

In the fall, remove all plant debris to help reduce mildew. Practice crop rotation in order to minimize potential diseases. Both cucumber beetles and squash bugs attach the vines and fruit; to control use an appropriate insecticide applied in either a spray or dust. Do not use any insecticide that will discourage bees from cross-pollinating your squash plants.

Yield Information

No yield information for Squash - Summer.

Tomato Information

Tomato

Stat Summary

Plant Spacing: 18-30" (457-762 mm)
Row Spacing: 36-48" (914-1219 mm)
Planting Depth: 1/4" (6 mm)
Plants Per Person: 4
Soil Temperature: 70-90°F (21-32°C)
Days to Emergence: 6-14
Recommended Soil PH: 6.0-6.8
Seed Indoors: 8 weeks before transplanting
Earliest Outdoor Planting: After Last Frost
Tick Can direct seed outdoors
Tick Can seed indoors

Planting Information

Sow seeds indoors 1/4 inch deep into sterile seedling mix; cover with plastic to keep from drying out. When the first set of true leaves appear move seedling into a 3-4 inch pots which is set in direct sunlight. When watering allow the soil surface to dry, but not the underground layers. Fertilize with fish emulsion every 10 to 12 days. Harden off several days before planting outdoors.

Tomatoes establish a stronger root system if planted deeper; additional roots will form along the buried stem. After removing any smaller weak bottom leaves, set seedling in the ground so that the soil level is just below the lowest good leaves.

Space determinate tomato plants 18-24 inches apart and indeterminate varieties 20 to 30 inches apart in well-drained, moderately fertile soil, high in organic matter with a pH of 6.0 to 6.8. Clays and loams produce the highest yields; lighter soils that drain and warm quickly can produce earlier harvests. Space rows 3 to 4 feet apart.

Growing Information

Prune tomatoes to one or two vigorous stems by snapping off “suckers” (stems growing from where leaf stems meet the main stem) when they are 2 to 4 inches long. Consistent moisture needed, but does not tolerate waterlogged soils. Mulch around each plant to help control weeds. Indeterminate tomatoes grow vertically; they will need support from a trellis, cage or pole. As the plant grows tie the stem to the stake or trellis with soft string or cloth; to accommodate more growth, form the tie into a figure-8 with the stem in one loop and the stake in the other. Start about 10 inches above the ground and continue to tie at similar intervals as the plant grows.

Harvesting and Storing Information

Pick regularly as soon as the fruits turn its full color but are still firm. Some large heirloom varieties ripen before they reach full color; in this case pick tomatoes when the skin still looks smooth and waxy, even if the top hasn't turned its mature color yet. Eat fresh or store for 7 to 10 days at 45 to 50 degrees F with 85% humidity. Green tomatoes can be held for ripening up to 5 weeks at 60 to 70 degrees F with 85% humidity.

Insect and Disease Information

Flea beetles can be most destructive early in the season; minimize by using row covers and keeping weeds removed. Control flea beetles with a vegetable safe insecticide. Tomato hornworms are large green caterpillars with white stripes on the body who feed on the leaves and fruit. Handpick in cooler parts of the day or use biological insecticides. Diseases can be minimized by using a 3 year crop rotation, drip irrigation, mulching around plants, removing weeds and maximizing air circulation around plants.

Yield Information

No yield information for Tomato.